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Sven Vermeulen 12 years ago
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  1. 16
      src/linux_sea/01-whatislinux.xml
  2. 16
      src/linux_sea/02-freesoftware.xml
  3. 34
      src/linux_sea/03-community.xml
  4. 6
      src/linux_sea/04-runninglinux.xml
  5. 16
      src/linux_sea/05-linuxfs.xml
  6. 22
      src/linux_sea/06-processes.xml

16
src/linux_sea/01-whatislinux.xml

@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
<primary>memory management</primary>
</indexterm>component manages the memory usage of the system: it keeps
track of used and unused memory, assigns memory to processes who require
it and ensures that processes can't manipulate each other's data. To do
it and ensures that processes can't manipulate the data of one another. To do
this, it uses the concept of virtual memory addresses: addresses for one
process are not the real addresses, and the kernel keeps track of the
correct mappings. It is also possible for data not to be really present
@ -436,7 +436,7 @@
installation options exist. You can install a distribution from a
network using net booting (a popular approach in enterprise
environments as it makes unattended installations possible) or from
within another operationg system.</para>
within another operating system.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@ -473,9 +473,9 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Is internationalisation of the software important?</para>
<para>Is internationalization of the software important?</para>
<para>Some distributions are targetting specific user groups tied to
<para>Some distributions are targeting specific user groups tied to
their language and geography. There are distributions that are fully
localized to a specific group (say "Belgian Dutch-speaking users" or
"Canadian French-speaking users"), but also distributions that try to
@ -520,10 +520,10 @@
<listitem>
<para>What policies does the distribution put on its software?</para>
<para>Organisations like FSF have a vision on how the (software) world
<para>Organizations like FSF have a vision on how the (software) world
should look like. Many distributions offer a way of implementing these
visions. For instance, some distributions only allow software that is
licensed under a FSF-approved license. Other distributions allow users
licensed under an FSF-approved license. Other distributions allow users
to use non-free software. There are distributions that implement a
higher security vision in the distribution, offering a more hardened
approach to operating systems.</para>
@ -811,7 +811,7 @@
as a vulnerability is found or reported. There is often no need for a
desktop user to obtain commercial support as the freely available
support channels offer a major advantage compared to some other,
propriatary operating systems.</para>
proprietary operating systems.</para>
</section>
<section>
@ -958,7 +958,7 @@
<para>However, another trend is also emerging: more and more games are
only being released on consoles, dropping the PC environment
alltogether. I personally don't know how games will evolve in the
altogether. I personally don't know how games will evolve in the
future, but I think that real action games will focus on game consoles
more.</para>

16
src/linux_sea/02-freesoftware.xml

@ -249,7 +249,7 @@
<para>Companies that <emphasis>sell</emphasis> software are of course
often against free software. When these companies major income depends
on the sales of their software, it would not be viable to make the
software free. If they would, competiting companies would have full
software free. If they would, competing companies would have full
access to the source code and improve their own product with it.</para>
<para>I don't think this is a disadvantage though. Software companies
@ -267,7 +267,7 @@
contributing it to the software project itself.</para>
<para>A major proof of this is the acceptance of free software by major
software players such as Sun Microsystems and IBM, and the emergance of
software players such as Sun Microsystems and IBM, and the emergence of
new software players that build their business upon free software, such
as RedHat or MySQL<indexterm>
<primary>MySQL</primary>
@ -301,7 +301,7 @@
distribution has to acquire itself (like infrastructure).</para>
<para>Most distributions have free downloads with online documentation
and wonderfull community support (active mailing lists or Internet
and wonderful community support (active mailing lists or Internet
fora), which is why Linux is that popular: you can download, install and
use several distributions to decide which one is best for you. You can
try the software (without loosing any functionality) and you don't even
@ -318,7 +318,7 @@
<para>Some distributions are only available when you pay for it. In that
case you often pay for the support or for additional software in the
distribution which isn't freely available. A popular distribution is
RedHat Enterprise Linux, a Linux distribution specifically targetting
RedHat Enterprise Linux, a Linux distribution specifically targeting
companies who want to set up Linux servers. You don't just pay for the
support, but also for the resources that RedHat has put in the
distribution to make it certified for other software (such as Oracle and
@ -436,7 +436,7 @@
<listitem>
<para><emphasis>development releases</emphasis> are intermediate
releases, similar to nightly snapshots, but somewhat more
coördinated by the developers. They usually have a
coordinated by the developers. They usually have a
ChangeLog<indexterm>
<primary>ChangeLog</primary>
</indexterm> which lists the changes in it since the previous
@ -599,7 +599,7 @@
<para>If at any time all the copyright owners of the free software
decide that the software falls under a different license which you don't
agree after, you can take the sourcecode of the moment right before the
agree after, you can take the source code of the moment right before the
copyright holders decided to switch the licenses and continue the
development under that license (as that software is still under the
original license and not the new one). This process (where a group of
@ -691,7 +691,7 @@
effort to ensure that no fragmentation occurs in the Linux world.</para>
<para>Because the LSB is a broad standard, it comprises of other
standards, including the forementioned FHS but also the <emphasis>Single
standards, including the aforementioned FHS but also the <emphasis>Single
Unix Specification</emphasis><indexterm>
<primary>Single Unix Specification</primary>
</indexterm> (SUS<indexterm>
@ -757,7 +757,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>How is it possible that many distributions allow you to upgrade
to the latest version without needing an installation CD or
reinstallation from scratch?</para>
re-installation from scratch?</para>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</section>

34
src/linux_sea/03-community.xml

@ -21,8 +21,8 @@
the Internet as main communication channel. Hence, these communities
aren't clustered in space like real life communities would, but are
scattered throughout the world. Nevertheless, the Internet ensures that
participants of a community, even when they are lightyears (figure of
speech) apart, talk to each other the same way as neighbours do.</para>
participants of a community, even when they are light years (figure of
speech) apart, talk to each other the same way as neighbors do.</para>
<para>The Internet is a great asset for these communities: you are not
judged based on the color of your skin, your age or your looks. What
@ -30,18 +30,18 @@
how you react in discussions. Debates in a community can often become
quite vivid, especially when the subject is one where facts aren't
sufficient to provide good answers. And when these discussions change from
debates into almost insulting fights, a flamewar<indexterm>
<primary>flamewar</primary>
debates into almost insulting fights, a flame war<indexterm>
<primary>flame war</primary>
</indexterm> is born.</para>
<para>In flamewars, facts and reason are often far away. You should
definitely try to avoid flamewars for discussions where decisions have to
<para>In flame wars, facts and reason are often far away. You should
definitely try to avoid flame wars for discussions where decisions have to
be made, but it is impossible to really prevent them as they are the
result of people who have an active interest in a subject they are eager
to defend, especially when there is no clear answer to the question that
started the flamewar.</para>
started the flame war.</para>
<para>Examples of such flamewars are ``What is the best Linux
<para>Examples of such flame wars are ``What is the best Linux
distribution?'' or ``What text editor should I choose?'' because these
questions don't have clear answers: the best distribution for one person
might be the worst for another, and there are many text editors around. In
@ -49,7 +49,7 @@
shouldn't argue about tastes and colors) and this is very true for these
kind of questions.</para>
<para>When you don't have a choice, flamewars don't exist: you cannot
<para>When you don't have a choice, flame wars don't exist: you cannot
compare one product with itself. But in the free software world, choice is
an important concept. You have the choice between many free operating
systems (next to Linux you have many BSD flavors, Sun Solaris 10 and even
@ -69,13 +69,13 @@
quite large. The Gentoo community for instance is known for its
responsiveness: the Gentoo chat channel is always alive (with more than
800 participants at any time) as is its forum (with more than a thousand
posts per day) and mailinglists. Of course, general flamewars on
posts per day) and mailinglists. Of course, general flame wars on
distributions are often on more neutral grounds, but heated discussions on
other topics are a daily routine.</para>
<para>For this reason, most communities have people who keep the
discussions sane and prevent flamewars from growing too much. People who
try to induce flamewars on the communication channels (called
discussions sane and prevent flame wars from growing too much. People who
try to induce flame wars on the communication channels (called
<emphasis>trolls</emphasis><indexterm>
<primary>troll</primary>
</indexterm>) are taken care of by these operators: channel operators
@ -88,7 +88,7 @@
<title>Local Communities</title>
<para>A specific type of community is one which is local in space. Such
communities often organise meetings (conferences, talks, barbequeues,
communities often organize meetings (conferences, talks, barbequeues,
...) and offer help to people local to the location where the community
is hosted.</para>
@ -96,7 +96,7 @@
<primary>LUG</primary>
</indexterm>s (Linux User Group<indexterm>
<primary>Linux User Group</primary>
</indexterm>s) are succesful examples of such communities: these
</indexterm>s) are successful examples of such communities: these
groups aggregate together, debating on the evolution in the Linux world
and help others with Linux installations (Linux Install Fests<indexterm>
<primary>Linux Install Fest</primary>
@ -136,7 +136,7 @@
<para>When people want to discuss a particular software topic or
distribution, online communities are often formed. These communities do
not (or to a less extend) organise meetings at a specific location
not (or to a less extend) organize meetings at a specific location
(often called "in real life") but rather use the Internet as the meeting
place ("online" meetings).</para>
@ -165,7 +165,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>documentation, more specialised to the software title but
<para>documentation, more specialized to the software title but
often also localised (translated)</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@ -194,7 +194,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>Mailinglists, which is similar (function-wise) to web forums,
but then organised through e-mail. People subscribe to a mailinglist
but then organized through e-mail. People subscribe to a mailinglist
and then receive all mails sent to that mailinglist to their
personal mailbox. Replies to these mails are sent back to the
mailinglists where they are again distributed to all mailinglist

6
src/linux_sea/04-runninglinux.xml

@ -360,7 +360,7 @@
</itemizedlist>
<para>The restriction deletion flag needs some explanation. It is used
on world-writeable directories (a well-known example is
on world-writable directories (a well-known example is
<filename>/tmp</filename>, where temporary files can be stored) and used
to prevent users to remove files they didn't create. A world-writable
directory would otherwise allow other users to remove files from that
@ -519,7 +519,7 @@ $ <command>pwd</command>
directory. The <filename>~</filename> can be used in two ways:
either to denote your home directory (<command>cd
~/Documents</command> goes to
<filename>/home/captain/Documents</filename>) or someone elses home
<filename>/home/captain/Documents</filename>) or someone else's home
directory. In the latter case, you append the user name to the
<filename>~</filename> sign, so: "<command>cd
~raghat/public_html/</command>" translates to
@ -596,7 +596,7 @@ Documents Movies Music Pictures
same.</para>
<section>
<title>Analysing ls -l output</title>
<title>Analyzing ls -l output</title>
<para>You will find that you often use "<command>ls -l</command>" to
get the necessary information about a file or directory. As such I

16
src/linux_sea/05-linuxfs.xml

@ -266,7 +266,7 @@ usbfs on /proc/bus/usb type usbfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,devmode=0664,devgid=85)<
successor, <emphasis>reiser4</emphasis><indexterm>
<primary>reiser4</primary>
</indexterm>, is still quite premature and is, due to the
inprisonment of the main developer Hans Reiser, not being
imprisonment of the main developer Hans Reiser, not being
developed that actively anymore.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@ -678,7 +678,7 @@ Filename Type Size Used Priority
<listitem>
<para><filename>/usr/lib</filename> contains all the libraries for
the abovementioned programs</para>
the above mentioned programs</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@ -782,7 +782,7 @@ Filename Type Size Used Priority
file system. It is the first file system that is mounted when the kernel
boots, and your system will not function properly if the kernel detects
corruption on this file system. Also, due to the nature of the boot
process, this file system will eventually become writeable (as the boot
process, this file system will eventually become writable (as the boot
process needs to store its state information, etc.)</para>
<para>Some locations on the root file system need to remain on the root
@ -886,7 +886,7 @@ Filename Type Size Used Priority
<para>Another advantage of using a separate file system for /home is
when you would decide to switch distributions: you can reuse your /home
file system for other Linux distributions (or after a reinstallation of
file system for other Linux distributions (or after a re-installation of
your Linux distribution).</para>
</section>
</section>
@ -929,7 +929,7 @@ Filename Type Size Used Priority
<para>However, supporting these flags wouldn't make a system secure: you
want to mix these privileges based on who works with the file. For
instance, the system configuration files should only be writeable by the
instance, the system configuration files should only be writable by the
administrator(s); some might not even be readable by the users (like the
file containing the user passwords).</para>
@ -980,7 +980,7 @@ Filename Type Size Used Priority
<programlisting>$ <command>ls -l /etc/fstab</command>
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 905 Nov 21 09:10 /etc/fstab</programlisting>
<para>In the above example, the fstab file is writeable by the root user
<para>In the above example, the fstab file is writable by the root user
(rw-) and readable by anyone else (r--).</para>
<para>In case of a directory,</para>
@ -1011,7 +1011,7 @@ Filename Type Size Used Priority
drwxr-x--- 2 root root 4096 Nov 26 18:17 /etc/cron.daily/</programlisting>
<para>In the above example, the cron.daily directory is viewable (r),
writeable (w) and "enterable" (x) by the root user. People in the root
writable (w) and "enterable" (x) by the root user. People in the root
group have view- and enter rights (r-x) whereas all other people have no
rights to view, write or enter the directory (---).</para>
@ -1249,7 +1249,7 @@ Change: 2010-02-06 13:50:43.000000000 +0100</programlisting>
</itemizedlist>
<para>Then you can set (=), add (+) or remove (-) privileges. For
instance, to make <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> writeable for the
instance, to make <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> writable for the
members of the owning group:</para>
<programlisting># <command>chmod g+w /etc/passwd</command></programlisting>

22
src/linux_sea/06-processes.xml

@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
<title>Parent and Child Relationships</title>
<para>Each Linux (and Unix) process has a parent (except for the top
process) and can have one or more childs. The relationship is crafted
process) and can have one or more children. The relationship is crafted
when a process is launched: the process that launched the new process
becomes the parent of that process. As a user, you might not know what
process you are currently working in. Every program is a process, being
@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ init-+-acpid
process launches a shell process with the user id and group id of the
user that logged on, so every command the user launches takes the user
id and group id of that user, since the parent process of every launched
command is either the beforementioned shell process or one of its child
command is either the before mentioned shell process or one of its child
processes.</para>
<para>Some processes however explicitly ask the Linux kernel to use a
@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ init-+-acpid
has root privileges rather than the privileges for the user. For the
<command>passwd</command> command, this is necessary because it needs to
update the password files (<filename>/etc/passwd</filename> and
<filename>/etc/shadow</filename>) which are only writeable by the root
<filename>/etc/shadow</filename>) which are only writable by the root
user (the <filename>/etc/shadow</filename> file is not even readable for
regular users).</para>
</section>
@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ init-+-acpid
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>TTY - controlling terminal (this is Unix inheritage where
<para>TTY - controlling terminal (this is Unix heritage where
users were logged on through terminals, pts is a
pseudoterminal)</para>
</listitem>
@ -213,7 +213,7 @@ Swap: 2008084k total, 132k used, 2007952k free, 776060k cached
user launches 3 xterms inside a graphical session he will be shown as
four logged on users) and the load average.</para>
<para>The load average is something many people misinterprete. The
<para>The load average is something many people misinterpret. The
load average shows the number of processes that were running or asking
for CPU time during the given interval. In the above example, this
means that:</para>
@ -396,7 +396,7 @@ apache2 4346 root 3u IPv4 11484 TCP *:https (LISTEN)</programlisti
process is still running, but it is running in the background. Most
daemons do not have the possibility to reattach to the session. Wether
or not a process is a daemon depends on the process itself as this is a
pure programmatical decision.</para>
pure programmatic decision.</para>
<para>Backgrounded processes however are processes that stay in the
running session, but do not "lock" the input devices (keyboard). As a
@ -427,7 +427,7 @@ apache2 4346 root 3u IPv4 11484 TCP *:https (LISTEN)</programlisti
<para>If you want to put a process that you are running in the
background, use Ctrl-Z to put the process in the background. Ctrl-Z also
pauzes the process, so if you want to continue the process in the
pauses the process, so if you want to continue the process in the
background, enter "<command>bg</command>" afterwards as well:</para>
<programlisting># <command>eix-update</command>
@ -496,7 +496,7 @@ apache2 4346 root 3u IPv4 11484 TCP *:https (LISTEN)</programlisti
even "wrap" return codes to this range. If a program would ever have a
return code of 512 for instance, it might be mapped into 0.</para>
<para>Every program that has succesfully finished its job will (or
<para>Every program that has successfully finished its job will (or
should) return code 0. A non-zero return code means that the application
has failed to finish its tasks (completely).</para>
@ -516,7 +516,7 @@ $ <command>echo $?</command>
2</programlisting>
<para>These return codes are important as they are the means to
investigate if all commands went succesfully or not, allowing you to
investigate if all commands went successfully or not, allowing you to
write quite intelligent shell scripts which trigger several commands and
include logic to handle command failures.</para>
</section>
@ -528,7 +528,7 @@ $ <command>echo $?</command>
Linux kernel does that for you, based on information about the process
itself, including but not limited to if the process is I/O-bound (as
such programs are most of the time user-interactive), its previous CPU
consumation, possible locks it is holding and more.</para>
consumption, possible locks it is holding and more.</para>
<para>You can, however, inform the kernel on what you think the process'
priority ought to be. For this, you can set a
@ -596,7 +596,7 @@ $ <command>echo $?</command>
<para>Its name might already inform you about its usual task: killing
processes. By default, if you want to terminate a process but you can't
commicate with the process directly (like hitting "Quit" or "Exit"), you
communicate with the process directly (like hitting "Quit" or "Exit"), you
should send a signal 15 (SIGTERM<indexterm>
<primary>SIGTERM</primary>
</indexterm>) to the program. This is also what